Is Artificial Intelligence a threat to humanity?
Science and technology progressed a lot to provide knowledge, power, comforts, and for the betterment of humanity. All the research and the findings are aimed at the upliftment of humans. However, sometimes the hard-gained knowledge escaped to the hands of unscrupulous elements, apprehending the future of humanism at stake. The intellectuals and the high-tech people are apprehending such a human crisis in future concerning the artificial intelligence.
What is Artificial intelligence?
Artificial intelligence is the human-like behavior or thinking displayed by a man-made machine or system. The system act as per the preprogrammed data fed and can dance to the tune of its programmer. However, AI, when combined with algorithms, machine learning techniques, and Deep Learning, may act automatically. It can memorize events, remember commands, process volumes of data instantly, and can take intelligent decisions.
A brief history of Artificial Intelligence:
Now the computer is part and parcel of modern-day life. Prior to 1940, the computer was just like a calculator, only executing commands but could not able to store the same. But since the development of the digital computer in 1940, computer scientists and researchers felt the need for enriching the computer with human-like intelligence and behavior.
In 1950, British mathematician and logician Alan Mathison Turing in the article titled “computing machinery and intelligence” made preliminary discussions on how to build intelligent machines, which can behave like humans.
In 1956 artificial intelligence was defined by John McCarthy, the father of AI. In the second half of twenty century, many revolutionary changes were experienced in computer hardware and software including machine learning algorithms. In 1980, artificial intelligence got boosted with the development of an algorithmic toolkit and funds flow for research and development in this sector.
The efforts of John Hopfield and David Rumelhart gave AI a big mileage with the development and demonstration of the “deep learning“ technique, which empowered computers to learn through experience like humans. Further Edward Feigenbaum introduced “expert systems” that imitate the human decision-making process. Further in 1997 Dragon System developed software known as “speech recognition software” which gave a big leap to Artificial intelligence.
Later Cynthia Breazeal developed Kismet, a robot that could recognize and display emotions like humans, considered a landmark achievement in computer science. Sophia a social humanoid robot developed by Hong Kong-based company Hanson Robotics and activated in 2016 made the world surprised by her look and intelligence.
Now she is the world’s first robot citizen and the first robot innovation Ambassador for the United Nations Development Programme. She is now busy appearing on the Tonight Show and Good morning Britain, including speaking at hundreds of conferences worldwide.
Categories of Artificial Intelligence:
Artificial intelligence can be categorized into two types on the basis of functionality and capabilities.
On the basis of functionality, AI is divided into the following categories.
This AI machine has no memory to memorize past things or to learn from past experiences. React merely to the present scenario and have limited functionality. We may take the example of IBM’s Deep Blue, a chess-playing computer, which defeated reigning chess World Champion and Grandmaster Gary Kasparov of Russia in 1997.
In this AI application, in added memory, AI uses past information to take better decisions. GSP location App of Google and NavIC (Navigation with Indian Constellation) of ISRO, India are coming under such categories.
The aim and objectives of this AI are to understand the human mind and behavior in detail. Such AI is still under development.
It is a very important stage in artificial intelligence development. The heading says many things, whereas Artificial intelligence could understand human emotions and reacts accordingly as if itself human. The concept is still in a hypothetical arena and a fictional reality. Such type of Artificial intelligence might act as a hypocrite and damage humanism is apprehended.
AI is categorized on the basis of capabilities as follows;
It performs on narrow task designed program. ANI has reactive and limited memory to perform a single specific task. It can’t perform in the future on the basis of past experience. Most of today’s AI is coming under this category. Google assistance, Siri of Apple, and Alexa of Amazon are examples of ANI.
Artificial General Intelligence(AGI):
Such types of artificial intelligence machines are capable of training, learning, understanding, and performing like a human beings. AGI is the primary goal of some of the AI research projects and now can find in fictional characters.
Artificial Super Intelligence(ASI):
It is the most advanced form of AI, where the machine man can perform better than humans due to its superior data processing, strong memory, and decision-making abilities. The software-based system can excel in human intellectual capabilities like learning, reasoning, and self-rectification. Such a machine is still a reality but this may pose a real threat to humanism if found in reality.
Why is AI a threat to humanism?
Many intelligent people, scientists, and tech-savvy worldwide apprehend that if AI surpasses humanity in general intelligence and become super-intelligent, then it would be a potential challenge to human to control it… Further, once computers can automatically reprogram themselves leading to technological singularity” or so-called “technological explosion” then the weaponization of technology can destroy the entire civilization in a race for supremacy. It may become the demon Bhasmasur of the Indian epic, who got the boon from Lord Siva and tried to destroy him at first instance with his blessings.
In March 2018, at a tech conference, Tesla and SpaceX founder and CEO Elon Musk issued a formal warning that ” AI is far more dangerous than nukes.” Stephen Hawking once told to an audience in Portugal “Unless we learn how to prepare for and avoid the potential risk…AI could be the worst event in the history of our civilization.” Apprehending the potential threat of the machine man in “an open letter to Robotics Industries and our community” six leading robot makers including Agility Robotics, Boston Dynamics, and Unitree has taken a pledge not to weaponize the robots. “We pledge that we will not weaponize our advanced-mobility general-purpose robots or the software we develop that enables advanced robotics and we will not support others to do so. When possible, we will carefully review our customer’s intended applications to avoid potential weaponization. We also pledge to explore the development of technological features that could mitigate or reduce these risks. To be clear we are not taking issue with existing technologies that nations and their government agencies use to defend themselves and uphold their laws.” the letter says.
The areas of potential threat:
Automation of jobs:
Automation of jobs is treated as the most imminent threat to unemployment. In 2019 Brooking Institution made a survey on job automation and the findings are alarming to government agencies. According to the survey, 36 million people’s jobs are with “high exposure” to automation, which means the above employees are at risk of losing jobs at any point in time.
Further, the machines are engaged in a bigger range from retail shops to market analysis to hospitality and warehouse management. Not only specialty jobs but also nonspecified normal jobs in hotel industries are also occupied by robots. As per Tesla’s statement ” Tesla is on a path to build a humanoid bipedal robot at scale to automate repetitive and boring tasks.
Core to the Tesla Bot, the motion planning stake presents a unique opportunity to work on state-of-the-art algorithms for motion planning and navigation culminating in their deployment to real-world production applications. Our motion planning software engineers develop and own this stake from inception to deployment. Most importantly, you will see your work repeatedly shipped to and utilized by thousands of Humanoid Robots within our factories.” It is a burning example of job automation and an increase in unemployment.
Private sectors are banking on profit and may go to any extent to use machine robots in place of humans. According to Gartner, 37% of organizations have implemented AI in one or more forms, causing panic for job aspirants. As per Servion Global Solutions by 2025, 95% of AI machines would interact with customers, stealing the jobs of human beings.
Spread of fake news:
It is highly apprehended that artificial intelligence can be used to create deep fake audio, picture,s and videos to tarnish the image of any individual, group, or community. Can spread hateful news, and create riots among communities. Social media like Twitter, Facebook, or Instagram can influence any election conclusively on the basis of false propaganda. If artificial intelligence can stop propaganda, it might spread deep fake news by unscrupulous elements using social media platforms.
The biggest threat for the entire civilization is what Elon Musk once warned about artificial intelligence” Artificial intelligence is far more dangerous than nukes.” Artificial intelligence-powered weaponization is a potential risk that compels the six leading robot makers including Agility Robotics, and Boston Dynamics to write an “open letter to Robotics Industries and our community” and take the pledge not to weaponize the robotics. The drone, the unmanned flying machines, and the tanks are using AI to gain over the rival by crossing moral redlines.
Five years back Elon Musk and more than 100 founders of AI and robots companies called for the United Nations to come up with regulations to control and regulate killer robots. Many secret missions are being carried out by secret agents by Artificial Intelligence implanted machines. One of the brightest examples is the killing of Iran’s top nuclear scientist Mohsen Fakhrizadeh by Israeli agents in 2020 with a robot machine gun.
Sex robots are now a reality and going to play a vital role in individual life. Sex robots can give and withdraw consent for sex. Till now it is only capable of simulating consent not giving actual consent. However, within one decade, humanoid sex robots will influence society. Human beings will fall in love with robots and marry, which will automatically destroy the very fabric of society, and the meaning of marriage, causing isolation and selfishness. It will also demoralize people and marginalize the vulnerable.
The sex robot will fulfill the sexual desire of the people as it is created as a ” pornographic representation of the human body” some says, but it is doubtful, whether it will be able to provide mental peace or not. Elizabeth Bear in 2011, wrote a short story, where a sex robot killed her billionaire sex partner and hired a lawyer to defend her action. It may be the imagination of an artist but some sort of realities and apprehensions are hiding behind it.
Malicious use of robots:
Humans can go to any extent to satisfy their sadist pleasure. The authoritarian government and organizations may use such AI as a threat to the privacy and security of an individual. Physical security and political security of a country may be at stake at the hand of autocrats.
It may be used as a tool to finish the opponents in science and technology, sports, politics, entertainment, etc. Crimes may be manifold and would be difficult for state agencies to control and mitigate. Hollywood movies like Eye in the sky(2015) and Angel has Fallen (2019)paint a perhaps more accurate picture of the future of real killer robots.
The financial crisis and stock market: AI algorithmic trading in the stock market may ruin the investors in a few minutes and very fundamental of the stock markets would collapse, causing economic and financial crises in the countries.
Conflicts between robots and human beings are not new on the silver screen. Robots may be useful in many sectors complementing human beings but they never are sentient. However malicious use of AI would definitely damage the very fabrics of social, economic, and family structures. Sex robots are a near future reality, they may destroy families, enjoy sex and become autocratic criminals like Dolly, the killer sex robot.
The weaponization of robots may destroy the ethics of humanism and cross moral barriers. Automation of jobs is a real-time threat for aspirants of any type of job. The top governing body of the United Nations should take Concrete steps in forming regulations to handle unforeseen situations of artificial intelligence.