Bernoulli’s effect and its true applications in today’s life.
Bernoulli’s effect is an important derivation in mechanics and fluid dynamics. It was first presented by Swiss mathematician and physicist Daniel Bernoulli, by publishing his theory in 1738, in his book “Hydrodynamics”
Bernoulli’s effect or principles says” If the velocity of a horizontally moving liquid or gas increases, its pressure decreases.” Further Bernoulli’s principles can be derived from the principles of conservation of energy. Here is a steady flow of a fluid in a small volume of space, the total energy comprising the pressure, gravitational potential, and kinetic energy remains constant at any point in time.
Italian physicist Giovanni Battista Venturi (1746-1822) made Bernoulli’s principle more popular and meaningful, he discovered the venturi effect, which is the direct consequence of the Bernoulli principle. Later a device to measure the velocity of the fluids known as a venturi flow meter was made for the purpose.
True applications in today’s life:
Practical applications of Bernoulli’s principles or effects are realized in daily life including aerodynamics, swinging a cricket ball, working with an atomizer, moving trains pulling nearby objects, the heavy wind has blown away roofs, working with carburetors, etc.
Bernoulli’s effect has a very useful role in the development of aerodynamics and designs of Airfoil. An airplane wing is designed in such a way that it is seen flat at the bottom and curved at the top. When the plane travels in the sky, the air moving over the wing travel faster and there is less air pressure on the top of the wing, which implies that lesser wind flow and more air pressure on the bottom of the wing, which pushes the wing upward, resulting the airplane to stay up in the air.
A fast-moving train pulls the nearby objects why ?-We have seen that the air close to the fast-moving train also moves in the direction of the train, because of the higher velocity of airflow close to the train. Due to that effect, a low-pressure space developed close to the train. To fill up the air gap, the surrounding air rushed within no time, pushing the objects toward the train. The travelers have been advised not to go close to railway tracks for the above reason.
Swinging of a cricket ball-
In cricket swinging of a cricket ball in the air is appreciated, whether it is outswing or inswing. It is definitely an art and skill on the part of the bowler but many have no idea that it works in Bernoulli’s principles. When a ball is thrown, through the air, one side of the ball spins in the direction of the air and its other side against the air direction.
Here the velocity of the air spinning in the direction of the air is more than another side of the ball. More velocity means lesser air pressure and less speed means more pressure. The air moved from a higher-pressure area to a lower-pressure area causing the ball to swing in a curve path.
Working of Atomizer–
An atomizer is a machine (as shown in the below picture) used to spray liquid substances like paints, pesticides, water, etc. The liquid is taken in a tube-like container -A and one end have a nozzle and the other end is fitted with a balloon-like material- R to pump air.
A side tube is attached to the middle of tube B which dips into the liquid. Ones the balloon is pressed, the air rushes through the nozzle at a reasonable speed, which reduces the air pressure in the tube above the liquid. Due to this liquid rises up and comes out through the nozzle in the form of droplets.
The fuel is drawn into the carburetor by the vacuum created on the down stroke of the piston. As air moves faster due to acceleration through the venturi tube, it creates a low-pressure area causing the velocity of intake air to increase, and the carburetor works.
Roofs are blown away in the heavy wind–
The high velocity of the wind stopped on its way to the walls of the building, but it passes over the rooftop, causing a low-pressure zone on top of the roof. At the same time, the high-pressure zone is created inside the house. High-pressure air in the house moves towards the low-pressure area at the top causing roof displaced.
We are familiar with the above events due to Bernoulli’s effects on our day-to-day lives but are not aware of the scientific facts and principles involved in these events. In fact, everything, we see, we experience involves laws of nature and scientific inquest. I feel the above discussions may enhance the horizon of knowledge of the readers.