# Different types of Electric Current, their uses, units of measurement with equations, and FAQs.

Different types of Electric Current such as Alternating Current (AC) and Direct Current (DC) are in use based on their frequency and voltage level etc.

## Types of Alternating Current(AC) with uses:

Different types of Electric Current such as Alternating Current (AC) and Direct Current (DC) are in use based on their frequency and voltage level etc. Here are some common types of AC:

1. Single-phase AC: This type of AC has one sine wave cycle that repeats itself, and is commonly used in homes and small businesses for powering lights, appliances, and other electronic devices.
2. Three-phase AC: This type of AC has three sine wave cycles that are 120 degrees out of phase with each other. It is commonly used in large industrial applications for powering heavy machinery and equipment.
3. High-voltage AC: This type of AC is used for transmitting electricity over long distances, such as from power plants to cities. The voltage level is typically 110 kV or higher.
4. Low-voltage AC: This type of AC is used for distributing electricity within buildings and neighbourhoods. The voltage level is typically 240V or lower.
5. Variable-frequency AC: This type of AC allows for the frequency of the sine wave to be varied, which is useful for controlling the speed of motors and other equipment.
6. Split-phase AC: This type of AC uses a particular type of transformer that allows for a single-phase AC circuit to power devices that require both a high voltage and a low voltage.
7. Multi-phase AC: This type of AC has more than three sine wave cycles, and is used for specialized applications such as aircraft electrical systems and some types of electric vehicles.

## Types of Direct Current(DC) with uses:

Different types of DC (direct current) are based on their voltage level and polarity. Here are some common types of DC:

1. Low voltage DC: This type of DC has a voltage level of less than 30 volts and is commonly used in electronic devices such as mobile phones, laptops, and LED lights.
2. High voltage DC: This type of DC has a voltage level of 1000 volts or more and is used for power transmission over long distances, such as in HVDC transmission lines.
3. Positive polarity DC: This type of DC has a positive voltage and is commonly used in electronic devices, such as battery-powered devices.
4. Negative polarity DC: This type of DC has a negative voltage and is commonly used in electronic devices, such as some types of electronic circuits.
5. Unipolar DC: This type of DC has a single polarity and is used in specialized applications such as electroplating and electrolysis.
6. Bipolar DC: This type of DC alternates between positive and negative polarity, and is used in specialized applications such as welding and electrochemical machining.
7. Regulated DC: This type of DC is produced by a voltage regulator, which ensures that the voltage output remains constant regardless of changes in the input voltage or load.
8. Unregulated DC: This type of DC is produced directly from a DC power source, such as a battery or generator, without any regulation or control over the output voltage.

## Units of measurements for Different types of Electric Current:

There are different units used to measure AC (alternating current) and DC (direct current) electrical quantities. Here are some common units:

#### Voltage:

The unit of measurement for voltage is volts (V). For example, a typical household outlet in the United States provides AC voltage at 120 V, while a 9V battery provides DC voltage.

#### Current:

The unit of measurement for electric current in amperes (A). For example, a typical household circuit breaker is rated for a maximum current of 15 A.

#### Power:

The unit of measurement for electric power in watts (W). For example, a 100 W light bulb uses 100 W of power when it is turned on.

#### Frequency:

The unit of measurement for frequency is hertz (Hz). For example, the standard frequency for AC power in the United States is 60 Hz.

#### Resistance:

The unit of measurement for electrical resistance is ohms (Ω). For example, a typical incandescent light bulb has a resistance of about 100 ohms when it is turned on.

#### Capacitance:

The unit of measurement for electrical capacitance is farads (F). For example, a typical capacitor used in electronic circuits has a capacitance of a few microfarads (μF).

#### Inductance:

The unit of measurement for electrical inductance is Henries (H). For example, a typical inductor used in electronic circuits has an inductance of a few millihenries (mH).

## FAQs of Different Types of Electric Current

Q/ What is the difference between AC and DC?

A: AC (alternating current) flows in one direction and then the other, while DC (direct current) flows in only one direction. AC is typically used for power transmission over long distances, while DC is commonly used in electronic devices.

Q/ What is the difference between single-phase and three-phase AC?

A: Single-phase AC has one sine wave cycle that repeats itself, while three-phase AC has three sine wave cycles that are 120 degrees out of phase with each other. Three-phase AC is commonly used in large industrial applications for powering heavy machinery and equipment.

Q/ What is the difference between high-voltage and low-voltage AC?

High-voltage AC is used for transmitting electricity over long distances, while A: low-voltage AC is used for distributing electricity within buildings and neighbourhoods.

Q/ What is the difference between positive and negative polarity DC?

A: Positive polarity DC has a positive voltage, while negative polarity DC has a negative voltage. The polarity of DC is important in electronic circuits and can affect the behaviour of electronic components.

Q/ What is the difference between regulated and unregulated DC?

A: Regulated DC is produced by a voltage regulator, which ensures that the voltage output remains constant regardless of changes in the input voltage or load. Unregulated DC is produced directly from a DC power source, such as a battery or generator, without any regulation or control over the output voltage.

Q/ What is the difference between low-voltage DC and high-voltage DC?

A: Low-voltage DC has a voltage level of less than 30 volts and is commonly used in electronic devices, while high-voltage DC has a voltage level of 1000 volts or more and is used for power transmission over long distances.

Q/ What is the difference between unipolar and bipolar DC?

A: Unipolar DC has a single polarity and is used in specialized applications such as electroplating and electrolysis, while bipolar DC alternates between positive and negative polarity and is used in specialized applications such as welding and electrochemical machining.

## Common Equations for Different Types of Electric Current:

#### Ohm’s Law:

This equation relates voltage, current, and resistance for both AC and DC circuits: V = IR where V is voltage in volts (V), I is current in amperes (A), and R is resistance in ohms (Ω).

#### Power equation:

This equation relates to power, voltage, and current for both AC and DC circuits: P = VI where P is power in watts (W), V is voltage in volts (V), and I is current in amperes (A).

#### Impedance equation:

This equation relates impedance, resistance, and reactance for AC circuits: Z = √(R² + X²) where Z is impedance in ohms (Ω), R is resistance in ohms (Ω), and X is reactance in ohms (Ω).

#### Capacitive reactance equation:

This equation relates capacitance, frequency, and capacitive reactance for AC circuits: Xc = 1/(2πfC) where Xc is capacitive reactance in ohms (Ω), f is the frequency in hertz (Hz), and C is capacitance in farads (F).

#### Inductive reactance equation:

This equation relates inductance, frequency, and inductive reactance for AC circuits: Xl = 2πfL where Xl is inductive reactance in ohms (Ω), f is the frequency in hertz (Hz), and L is inductance in henries (H).

#### Three-phase power equation:

This equation relates to power, voltage, and current for three-phase AC circuits: P = √3 × V × I × cos(θ) where P is power in watts (W), V is line-to-line voltage in volts (V), I is line current in amperes (A), and θ is the phase angle between voltage and current.

Note that these equations are just a few examples, and many more equations are used in studying different types of current.