What is our body made of? know the amazing things.
What is our body made of? The first answer to the question is our physical body is made of Panch Mahabhut, five great( gross) elements. This is the eastern philosophy and mythological contents of Hinduism.
What is our body made of?
What is our body made of? The first answer to the question is our physical body is made of Panch Mahabhut, five great( gross) elements. This is the eastern philosophy and mythological contents of Hinduism. Panch mahabhut are Kshit- the Earth, Opa-water, Tej-fire, Maruta-air, and Byam-sky/space. Our body constitutes 72 percent of water 12 percent of the earth, 6 percent of air, 4 percent fire, and 8 percent of ether or space.
Water corresponds to saliva, blood, urine, and sweat, in our body, whereas hunger, thirst, vision in the eyes, enzymes, and saliva are fire elements. The air element corresponds to all movements, contractions, physical activities, etc. Space is our mind, which can’t be measured. Radio frequencies, electrical signals being sent by body regulators, and cosmic rays are also included in space elements in our body. Earth or solid matter in our body are tissues, bone, muscle, teeth, nails, hair, fat, etc.
The second answer is our body is made of cells. Cells are the basic units and building blocks of our body. Cells constitute tissues. Tissues make organs and organs come together to form organ systems and organ systems forms organism or gross body,
What are cells:
- The cell is the smallest structural and functional unit of a living organism including us, humans. Every cell is surrounded by the plasma membrane, which is soft and elastic by character. It plays a very important role in regulating the passage of some substances through it.
- Cell membrane/ plasma membrane separates the interior of the cell from the outside environment.
- The cell membrane is filled with a jelly-like fluid substance referred to as protoplasm. Protoplasm is a colourless substance consisting of a nucleus, ribosomes, mitochondria, gogli bodies, centrosomes, etc, that performs many functions in the body.
- About 37.2 trillion cells with 200 different types are estimated in our body.
- Cells are in various shapes and sizes and are designed to perform different functions, may be oval, spherical, flat, or cylindrical in shape. The largest cells are nerve cells, which may be about one meter long and very much thin, and the smallest cells are red blood cells, which are less than a thousandth of a centimeter.
Types of human cells:
Research says the human body has about 37.2 trillion cells of 200 different types. It is not possible to discuss all in this article but to focus on important cells. They are stem cells, bone cells, blood cells, muscle cells, fat cells, skin cells, nerve cells, sex cells, endothelial cells, pancreatic cells, and sensory cells.
Stem cells are primary cells and produce all other types of cells. They are normally found in the bone marrow. They mutate over and over again to produce multiple new cells. Stem cells are three types-embryonic stem cells, adult stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells.
- Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent and found in the inner cell mass of the human blastocyst. It also provides new cells for an embryo as it grows and developed into a body.
- Adult stem cells are multipotent and found in small numbers in most adult tissues like bone marrow, or fat. Being multipotent have limited capabilities to give rise to multiple cells type. The principal functions are to regenerate tissues for the renewal and repair of damaged cells.
- Inducted pluripotent stem cells are also derived from the inner cells’ mass of the blastocyst. They are like embryonic stem cells but their specific functions are not known. The scientist may create induced pluripotent stem cells by taking embryonic stem cells from three to four days old embryos donated for Vitro-fertilization.
Bone is composed of three types of cells-osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes.
- Osteoblasts are responsible for the creation of new cells, referred to as bone-forming cells.
- Osteoclasts perform the resorption of bone tissues and release the minerals into the bloodstream.
- Osteocytes, derives from osteoblasts, maintain bone tissues is its principal function.
Blood contains three types of cells like Red blood cells, White blood cells, and Platelets.
- Red blood cells are made in the bone marrow and released to the bloodstream after being matured for about 6 to 7 days. It bears bright red colour for the presence of hemoglobin in it. It is microscopic and has no nucleus, unlike white blood cells, making them comfortable to change shape and pass through the body easily. The principal function of red blood cells is to carry oxygen to cells and release carbon dioxide to the lungs to exhale.
- White blood cells are part of the immune system of our body. They fight infections and other diseases by producing antibodies. It has no hemoglobin and bears a nucleus. White blood cells are referred to as leukocytes or white corpuscles.
- Platelets make the blood clot and stop bleeding. Once a blood vessel is injured causing bleeding, the body sends the signals to platelets and platelets rushed to the spot instantly and clot the blood. Too much or too less quantities of platelets are injurious to health. The normal range of platelets in adults varies from 150,000 to 450,000 per microliter of blood.
Human body contains about 600 muscles. Muscle cells commonly known as myocytes, collectively form the muscle tissues. A single muscle cell contains many nuclei pressed against each other against the cell membrane. Three types of muscle cells are found in the human body called as cardiac, skeletal, and smooth.
- Cardiac muscle cells/cardiomyocytes are tube-like structures composed of chains of myofibrils. Myofibrils consist of fundamental contractile units like sarcomeres. It forms the tissues and tissues form the muscular heart.
- Skeletal muscle cells form the specialized tissues attached to bones and allow humans to move and perform daily activities. For the cells’ movement, they use the principles of contractions and relaxation by utilizing the energy in the form of ATP. They play a vital role in the respiratory system, maintain posture and protect vital organs of the body.
- Smooth muscle cells are located in various internal organs including the digestive tract, urinary tract, liver, and pancreas, except the heart, and perform many types of functions. In stomach helps digestion and in urinary helps to get rid of body toxins and make in electrolyte balance.
Fat cells are referred to as adipose cells, found under the skin, and all over the body, within the bone marrow, responsible for the creation of cells and storage of energy in the form of triglycerides.
A normal person has 25-35 billion fat cells. It can increase with weight gain and loss with weight loss. Fat cells can be stored in three ways-essential, subcutaneous or visceral fat.
- Essential fat cells are necessary for healthy and fruitful body functions.
- Subcutaneous fat cells cover most of our bodily fats, are found under the skin, and supply energy for normal body functions.
- Visceral fat cells are home to the abdomen. It can store in the liver, stomach, intestine, and even arteries. A high level of visceral fat is a dangerous signal for the maintenance of healthy life. It is called active for causing serious health issues. During weight, loss fat is converted into carbon dioxide and water. Carbon dioxide exhales and water comes out in form of urine, sweat, tears, etc.
Four types of skin cells are found in the epidermis, the outer layer of skin. They are keratinocytes, melanocytes, Langerhans cells, and Merkel.
- Keratinocytes-Keratinocytes are the outer layer of cells made of keratinocytes. Its primary function is to act against bacteria, parasites, fungi, viruses, etc. As immune organ protects the body against heat, ultraviolet rays, and water loss. The epidermis contains no blood vessels. Further, it acts as a sensory organ toward touch, detects temperature, etc. New cells push the older ones to the surface to harden and eventually die off.
- Melanocyte cells produce melanin. Everyone has the approximately same number of cells. Exposure to sunlight increases melanin production, making fare skinned people tan and dark-skinned to more darker. Melano production depends on the following factors like hormones, age, skin injuries, and the impact of sunlight.
- Langerhans cells encounter foreign substances by determining the appropriate adaptive immune response.
- Merkel cells are found just under the epidermis and very close to the nerve ending. It receives the sensation of touch and contains hormones.
The nervous system is a very complex one and consists of two types of cells.- neuron and glial cells. Nerve cells are the structural and functional units of the nervous system. Glial cells act as a supportive role to neurons. Neurons are specialized cells capable enough to detect, and receive, various inputs and send electrical signals or messages all over the body. Nerve cells in the brain don’t mutate at all. But in two special places in the brain can produce new cells. The human brain contains about 86 billion neurons. Each nerve cell includes a cell body, a major branching fiber or axon, and many smaller branching fibers called dendrites.
- Cell body: It is also referred to as soma, is the core section of a neuron, contains genetic information, and maintains its structure. It is also responsible for providing energy to drive activities.
- Axon: An axon is a long tail-like structure, that joins the cell bodies at a junction known as an axon hillock. Many axons are insulated with myelin, which helps the axon to conduct electrical signals.
- Dendrites are fibrous root-like structures connected with the cell body. It acts as an antenna to receive and process input and signals from the axons of other neurons. One neuron can have more than one dendrite, called a dendrite tree.
Endothelial cells form the inner lining of a blood vessel and regulate, exchanges between the bloodstream and the surrounding tissues. Its four normal functions are to filter the fluids, regulate the size of blood vessels, hemostasis, and transportation of various substances throughout the body. May be damaged by several conditions like diabetes, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and physical inactivities.
In the human reproduction system sex cells play a vital role. In women they are known as egg cells or ovum and in men sperm cells or spermatozoon. Sperm cells are produced in male testicles, whereas egg cells are in female ovaries. Sex cells are also called gametes. They are haploid cells, and each cell carries only one set of chromosomes. Haploid cells are either sperm or egg.
Normal human pancreas contains about one million islets. One islet consists of four cells type, out of which alpha, beta, and delta cells produce important hormones for the body. The function of fourth c-cells is not yet known. Beta cells are endocrine cells, that synthesize, store, and secret insulin to balance blood sugar levels.
Sensory cells are responsible and specialized cells, which detect sensory information including sound, light, smell, touch, & temperature, etc., through receptors on their surface. All layers of skin cells are home to the sensory receptors. Receptors may be classified into five.
- Chemoreceptors stimulated by changes in the chemical composition of substances include taste buds on the tongue.
- Pain receptors are sensitive to tissue damage causing pain.
- Thermo receptors are stimulated by changes in temperature like cold and hot.
- Mechanoreceptors are stimulated by changes in pressure or movement. It is a touch receptor in the skin.
- Photoreceptors are stimulated by light energy.
How many cells are daily produced and daily worn out?
Cells are continuously being produced and worn out. Worn-out cells are being replaced by new cells. A new study conducted by biologists Ron Sender and Ron Milo of Israel says the human body replaces 330 billion cells per day and produces 3.8 million new cells per second. Out of which 173-259 billion red blood cells are being produced every day.
The human body is based on cell structure and cells are the building blocks of living beings. All cells are working restlessly to keep the body functioning and make us happy. If we long healthy cells and lifelong happy ness, we have to respect the law of nature and maintain disciplined life.
nb. Feature image credit-class notes 123.com